S.Y. Chew, P.P. Wong, K.K. Chin


Breakwaters in a series can be employed to protect sedimentary coasts. They are used to protect newly reclaimed land along the southeast coast of Singapore; they act as headlands between which sand beaches are formed. The development of these beaches takes place under conditions of low energy waves, a predominant wave direction from the southeast and an east-west littoral drift. The characteristics and development of three beaches over a one-year period are presented. Surveys of the reclaimed land show various beach types between the headland breakwaters. A relationship exists between berm orientation and headland breakwater orientation. Beach stability is tentatively indicated by the formation of a wide berm.


beach developement; breakwater; headland breakwater

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