ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME MAJOR TYPES OF HARBORS

Francis E. Elliott, Willis L. Tressler

Abstract


The operational requirements for an ideal harbor are (Chao Hwa et al. 1945, Stewart 1945):
a. Provision for shelter from the waves of the open sea and a limited fetch*
b. Provision for shelter from strong winds from all directions.
c. Depth enough for a large vessel to maneuver over an extensive area.
d. Good holding ground for anchoring.
e. A deep draft entrance from the sea.
f. A minimum of annual expense for dredging.
g. Moderate or small tidal range,
h. Moderate tidal currents.
i. Sufficient circulation to remove contaminants.
j. A low fouling rate and relative freedom from marine borers.
k. Freedom from seiches and surges.
1. Freedom from tidal bores.
m. Freedom from ice.
n. Freedom from fog.
The reasons for these requirements are clear enough so that no further explanation seems to be necessary. Most of these operational requirements can readily be translated into physical phenomena provided by land, i.e., by configuration of the coast or topography.

Keywords


harbor design; harbor maintenance; natural harbors

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