STABILITY AGAINST WAVES AND CURRENTS OF GRAVEL RUBBLE MOUNDS OVER PIPELINES AND FLAT GRAVEL BEDS

Alf Tørum, Øivind Arntsen, Colin Kuester

Abstract


For different reasons oil/gas pipelines or parts of oil/gas pipelines have to be covered with rubble mounds. The question is then what the size of the stones/gravel in the mound should be to withstand waves and currents of the area. In order to obtain more information on the stability of gravel mounds over pipelines, laboratory tests in a wave/current flume have been carried out and are summarized herein. In addition data from other similar investigations elsewhere are discussed. A brief analysis of the stability of a flat gravel bed subjected to irregular waves has also been included, using the concept of the statistical distribution of the bed shear stress.

Keywords


pipeline; waves and currents; rubble mound; stability; bed shear stress; laboratory experiments

References


CIRIA, CUR and CETMEF. 2007: The Rock Manual. The use of rock in hydraulic engineering. (2nd edition). C83, CIRIA, London.

ISO 21650. 2007: Actions from waves and currents on coastal structures. International Standard, First edition, 2007-10-15.

Kuester, C. 2007: Waves and currents on near-bed structures. Data summary report. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Transport Engioneering/Valle Scandinavian Scholarship and Exchange Program. June 2007.

Lomonaco, P. 1994: Design of rock cover for underwater pipelines. MSc-thesis International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Delft Technological University, Delft, The Netherlands.

Lomonaco, P., Vidal, C., Losada, I.j. and Mendez, F.J. 2003: Wave height, pressure and velocity CDF's (cumulative distribution function) around rubble protections for submarine outfalls.

Proceedings of the conference Coastal Strucures 2003, 26 – 30 August 2003, Portland, Oregon, USA. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).

Madsen, Ole S. and Wood, William. 2002. Sediment Transport Outside the Surf Zone In: Coastal Engineering Manual, Part III, Coastal Sediment Processes, Chapter III-6, Engineer Manual 1110-2-1100, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC.

Myrhaug, D. 1995: Bottom friction beneath random waves. Coastal Engineering, 24 pp 259-273, 1995.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3839(94)00023-Q

Myrhaug, D., Holmedal, L.E., Simons, R.R. and MacIver, R.D. 2001: Bottom friction in random waves plus current flow. Coastal Engineering, 43 pp 75 – 92, (2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3839(01)00007-2

Soulsby, R.L. and Whitehouse, R.J.S. 1997: Threshold of sediment motion in Coastal Environments. Proc. Combined Australasian Coastal Engineering and Ports Conference, Christchurch, 1997.

Soulsby, R.L. 1997: Dynamics of marine sands. Publisher Thomas Telford, London, UK.

PMCid:1343100

Tørum, A., Kuester, C. and Arntsen, Ø.A. 2008: Stability against waves and currents of rubble mounds over pipelines. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Civil and Transport Engineering, Report no. BAT/MB-R1/2008.

Van Gent, M.R.A. and Wallast, I 2001: Stability of near-bed structures and bed protections. Analysis of physical model tests with waves and currents. Delft Cluster report DC030204H3804, Delft Hydraulics, December 2001, Delft, The Netherlands.

Van Gent, M.R.A. and Wallast, I. 2002: Stability of near-bed structures under waves and currents. Proceedings of the 28th International Coastal Engineering Conference, 7 – 12 July 2002, Cardiff, Wales, Great Britain. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd.

Vidal, C., Losada, I., Martin, F.L. 1998: Stability of near-bed rubble mound structures. Proceedings of 26th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, 22 – 26 June 1998, Copenhagen, Denmark. ASCE.

Vidal, C., Lomonaco, P. and Martin, F.L. 2002: Prototype analysis of stability of rubble mound protections for submariune outfalls. Proceedings of the 28th International Coastal Engineering Conference, 7 – 12 July 2002, Cardiff, Wales, Great Britain. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte

Vidal Pascual, C., Lopez Mera, F. and Losada, I. 2007: Stability analysis of low-crested and submerged rouble mound breakwaters: Relation between flow characteristics and measured damage and stabilty formulae for low-crested and submerged breakwaters. Proceedings of the international conference on Coastal Structures 2007, 1 – 5 July 2007, Venice, Italy.


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.