OPTIMIZING METHODS TO MEASURE HYDRODYNAMICS IN COASTAL WETLANDS: EVALUATING THE USE AND POSITIONING OF ADV, ADCP AND HR-ADCP

Erik Horstman, Thorsten Balke, Tjeerd Bouma, Marjolein Dohmen-Janssen, Suzanne Hulscher

Abstract


Hydrodynamic impacts of vegetation in the intertidal zone are highly important to coastal protection. However, most studies on hydrodynamic impacts of vegetation in the intertidal zone are carried out in flumes. This results in a lack of field data for validating models that describe short-term hydrodynamic impacts of vegetation. The current research focuses on field measurements of flow patterns and waves in vegetated intertidal areas. Ample measurement devices are available to measure hydrodynamic processes in the field. Examples are: acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP), high resolution acoustic Doppler current profilers (HR-ADCP) and acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADV). This study focuses on the differences in the performance of these devices, to determine which of them can be best deployed in a future fieldwork campaign in mangroves. Major points of attention in this comparison are the accuracy of the data and the potential disturbance of the measurements by the presence of vegetation. It is concluded that ADV’s perform very well in vegetated intertidal areas, while (HR-)ADCP’s show difficulties when deployed upward looking. Furthermore, ADV’s are preferred over (HR-)ADCP’s due to their ability of combining high frequent wave and current measurements and their convenient deployment.

Keywords


salt marsh; mangrove; hydrodynamics; field measurements; acoustic Doppler instruments

References


Anthony, E.J. 2004. Sediment dynamics and morphological stability of estuarine mangrove swamps in Sherbro Bay, West Africa. Marine Geology, 208(2-4), 207-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.04.009

Augustinus, P.G.E.F. 1995. Geomorphology and sedimentology of mangroves. In: G.M.E. Perillo (Editor), Developments in Sedimentology. Elsevier, pp. 333-357.

Barbier, E.B., E.W. Koch, B.R. Silliman, S.D. Hacker, E. Wolanski, J. Primavera, E.F. Granek, S. Polasky, S. Aswani, L.A. Cramer, D.M. Stoms, C.J. Kennedy, D. Bael, C.V. Kappel, G.M.E. Perillo and D.J. Reed. 2008. Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science, 319(5861), 321-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1150349 PMid:18202288

Bird, E. 2005. Mangroves, Geomorphology. In: M. Schwartz (Editor), Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Amsterdam, pp. 611-613. PMid:16167356

Bouma, T.J., M.B. De Vries, E. Low, L. Kusters, P.M.J. Herman, I.C. Tanczos, S. Temmerman, A. Hesselink, P. Meire and S. van Regenmortel. 2005. Flow hydrodynamics on a mudflat and in salt marsh vegetation: identifying general relationships for habitat characterisations. Hydrobiologia, 540, 259-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-7149-0

Bouma, T.J., L.A. van Duren, S. Temmerman, T. Claverie, A. Blanco-Garcia, T. Ysebaert and P.M.J. Herman. 2007. Spatial flow and sedimentation patterns within patches of epibenthic structures: Combining field, flume and modelling experiments. Continental Shelf Research, 27, 1020-1045. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.12.019

Brinkman, R.M. 2006. Wave attenuation in mangrove forests: an investigation through field and theoretical studies. PhD Thesis, James Cook University, Townsville, 146 pp.

De Boer, W.F., L. Rydberg and V. Saide. 2000. Tides, tidal currents and their effects on the intertidal ecosystem of the southern bay, Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Hydrobiologia, 428(1-3), 187-196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004030605474

Furukawa, K., E. Wolanski and H. Mueller. 1997. Currents and sediment transport in mangrove forests. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 44(3), 301-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1996.0120

Garcia, C.M., M.I. Cantero, Y. Nino and M.H. Garcia. 2005. Turbulence measurements with acoustic Doppler velocimeters. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 131(12), 1062-1073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2005)131:12(1062)

Gordon, L. and A. Lohrmann. 2001. Near-shore Doppler current meter wave spectra. Waves 2001, San Francisco, California, USA, pp. 33-43.

Healy, T.R. 2005. Salt marsh. In: M. Schwartz (Editor), Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Amsterdam, pp. 819-820. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3880-1_264

Hong Phuoc, V.L. and S.R. Massel. 2006. Experiments on wave motion and suspended sediment concentration at Nang Hai, Can Gio mangrove forest, Southern Vietnam. Oceanologia, 48(1), 23-40.

Koch, E.W., L.P. Sanford, S.-N. Chen, D.J. Schafer and J. McKee Smits. 2006. Waves in seagrass systems: review and technical recommendations, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington.

Kraus, N.C., A. Lohrmann and R. Cabrera. 1994. New acoustic meter for measuring 3D laboratory flows. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 120(3), 406-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1994)120:3(406)

Lane, S.N., P.M. Biron, K.F. Bradbrook, J.B. Butler, J.H. Chandler, M.D. Crowell, S.J. McLelland, K.S. Richards and A.G. Roy. 1998. Three-dimensional measurement of river channel flow processes using acoustic Doppler velocimetry. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 23(13), 1247-1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199812)23:13<1247::AID-ESP930>3.0.CO;2-D

Lohrmann, A., R. Cabrera and N.C. Kraus. 1994. Acoustic-Doppler velocimeter (ADV) for laboratory use. Funcamentals and Advancements in Hydraulic Measurements and Experimentation, Buffalo, New York, pp. 351-365.

Massel, S.R., K. Furukawa and R.M. Brinkman. 1999. Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests. Fluid Dynamics Research, 24(4), 219-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5983(98)00024-0

Mazda, Y., N. Kanazawa and E. Wolanski. 1995. Tidal asymmetry in mangrove creeks. Hydrobiologia, 295(1), 51-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00029110

Mazda, Y., E. Wolanski, B. King, A. Sase, D. Ohtsuka and M. Magi. 1997. Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove swamps. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 1(3), 193-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009949411068

Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 2007. Wetlands. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, USA, 586 pp. PMCid:1797227

Möller, I., T. Spencer, J.R. French, D.J. Leggett and M. Dixon. 1999. Wave transformation over salt marshes: A field and numerical modelling study from North Norfolk, England. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 49(3), 411-426 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1999.0509

Neumeier, U. and C.L. Amos. 2006. The influence of vegetation on turbulence and flow velocities in European salt-marshes. Sedimentology, 53(2), 259-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.2006.00772.x

Nortek AS. 2005a. Aquadopp current profiler; user guide, Nortek AS, Rud, Norway.

Nortek AS. 2005b. Vector current meter; user manual, Nortek AS, Rud, Norway.

Pedersen, T. and S. Nylund. 2006. Wave height measurements using acoustic surface tracking. Environmental research, engineering and management, 1(35), 18-25.

Quartel, S., A. Kroon, P. Augustinus, P. Van Santen and N.H. Tri. 2007. Wave attenuation in coastal mangroves in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 29(4), 576-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.05.008

Reed, D.J. 2005. Wetlands. In: M. Schwartz (Editor), Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Amsterdam, pp. 819-820.

Roland, R.M. and S.L. Douglass. 2005. Estimating wave tolerance of Spartina alterniflora in coastal Alabama. Journal of Coastal Research, 21(3), 453-463. http://dx.doi.org/10.2112/03-0079.1

Schretlen, J.L.M. and J.J. Van der Werf. 2006. SANTOSS Database: Existing data from experiments in oscillatory flow tunnels and large wave flumes, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

SonTek. 1997. Pulse coherent Doppler processing and the ADV correlation coefficient, SonTek, San Diego.

Struve, J., R.A. Falconer and Y. Wu. 2003. Influence of model mangrove trees on the hydrodynamics in a flume. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 58(1), 163-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7714(03)00072-6

Teh, S.Y., H.L. Koh, P.L.F. Liu, A.I.M. Ismail and H.L. Lee. 2009. Analytical and numerical simulation of tsunami mitigation by mangroves in Penang, Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36(1), 38-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2008.09.007

Temmerman, S., T.J. Bouma, G. Govers, Z.B. Wang, M.B. De Vries and P.M.J. Herman. 2005. Impact of vegetation on flow routing and sedimentation patterns: Three-dimensional modeling for a tidal marsh. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 110(F4), 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2005JF000301

Terray, E.A., B.H. Brumley and B. Strong. 1999. Measuring waves and currents with an upwardlooking ADCP. IEEE Sixth Working Conference on Current Measurement, San Diego, pp.

Van der Wal, D., A. Wielemaker-Van den Dool and P.M.J. Herman. 2008. Spatial patterns, rates and mechanisms of saltmarsh cycles (Westerschelde, The Netherlands). Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 76(2), 357-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.07.017

Van Rijn, L.C. 2008. Principles of fluid flow and surface waves in rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans. Aqua Publications, The Netherlands.

Vo-Luong, P. and S. Massel. 2008. Energy dissipation in non-uniform mangrove forests of arbitrary depth. Journal of Marine Systems, 74(1-2), 603-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.004

Wolanski, E., S. Spagnol and E.B. Lim. 2002. Fine sediment dynamics in the mangrove-fringed, muddy coastal zone. In: T.R. Healy, Y. Wang and J.-A. Healy (Editors), Muddy coasts of the world: processes, deposits and function. Proceedings in Marine Science. Elsevier Science B.V., pp. 279-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1568-2692(02)80085-7

Yang, S.L. 1998. The role of Scirpus marsh in attenuation of hydrodynamics and retention of fine sediment in the Yangtze Estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 47(2), 227-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ecss.1998.0348


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.