FLOW DEPTHS AND VELOCITIES AT CREST AND LANDWARD SLOPE OF A DIKE, IN THEORY AND WITH THE WAVE OVERTOPPING SIMULATOR

Jentsje Wouter van der Meer, Bianca Hardeman, Gosse Jan Steendam, Holger Schuttrumpf, Henk Verheij

Abstract


Wave overtopping discharges at coastal structures are well described in the EurOtop Manual (2007), including the distribution of overtopping wave volumes. Each volume that overtops a dike or levee will have a certain flow velocity and depth record in time, often given by the maximum velocity and flow depth. This paper describes some further development of the theory on flow depth and velocities on the crest, but will also show an inconsistency with respect to the mass balance. The second part of the paper gives an analysis of measured values on real dikes, simulated by the Wave Overtopping Simulator. It gives also the method of "cumulative hydraulic load" to compare overtopping discharges for different wave conditions. A large wave height with less overtopping waves, but larger overtopping wave volumes, is more damaging than a small wave height with more, but smaller overtopping volumes, even if the overtopping discharge is similar. The reasons to develop the cumulative hydraulic load have been compared with the recently in the US developed method of erosional equivalence.

Keywords


dikes; levees; overtopping; flow depth; flow velocity; wave overtopping simulator; erosional index

References


Bosman, G, J.W. van der Meer, G. Hoffmans, H. Schüttrumpf and H.J. Verhagen. 2008. Individual overtopping events at dikes. ASCE, proc. ICCE 2008, Hamburg, Germany, p. 2944-2956.

Dean, R.G., J.D. Rosati, T.L. Walton and B.L. Edge (2010). Erosional equivalences of levees: Steady and intermittent wave overtopping. Journal of Ocean Engineering 37 (2010) 104-113.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2009.07.016

EurOtop Manual. 2007. Wave Overtopping of Sea Defences and Related Structures – Assessment Manual. UK: N.W.H. Allsop, T. Pullen, T. Bruce. NL: J.W. van der Meer. DE: H. Schüttrumpf, A. Kortenhaus. www.overtopping-manual.com.

Hoffmans, G., G.J. Akkerman, H. Verheij, A. van Hoven and J.W. van der Meer. The erodibility of grassed inner dike slopes against wave overtopping. ASCE, Proc. ICCE 2008, Hamburg, p. 3224-3236.

Schüttrumpf H. and H. Oumeraci (2005). Layer thicknesses and velocities of wave overtopping flow at seadikes. Journal of Coastal Engineering, Volume 52, Issue 6, p. 473-495.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oceaneng.2009.07.016

Schüttrumpf, H. and M.R.A. van Gent, 2003. Wave overtopping at seadikes. ASCE, proc. Coastal Structures 2003, p. 431-443.

Schüttrumpf, H.F.R. 2001. Wellenüberlaufströmung bei See-deichen, Ph.D.-thesis, Technical University Braunschweig.

Steendam, G.J., J.W. van der Meer, B. Hardeman and A. van Hoven (2010). Destructive wave overtopping tests on grass covered landward slopes of dikes and transitions to berms. ASCE, Proc. ICCE 2010, Shanghai, China.

PMCid:2945022

Van Gent, M.R.A. 2002. Low-exceedance wave overtopping events. Delft Hydraulics project id. DC030202/H3803.

Van der Meer, J.W., R. Schrijver, B. Hardeman, A. van Hoven, H. Verheij and G.J. Steendam. 2009. Guidance on erosion resistance of inner slopes of dikes from three years of testing with the Wave Overtopping Simulator. Proc. ICE, Breakwaters, Marine Structures and Coastlines; Edinburgh, UK.

Van der Meer, J.W., G.J. Steendam, G. de Raat and P. Bernardini. 2008. Further developments on the wave overtopping simulator. ASCE, proc. ICCE 2008, Hamburg.

Van der Meer, J.W., P. Bernardini, G.J. Akkerman and G.J.C.M. Hoffmans, 2007. The wave overtopping simulator in action. ASCE, proc Coastal Structures, Venice, Italy, p. 645-656.

Van der Meer, J.W., W. Snijders and E. Regeling, 2006. The wave overtopping simulator. ASCE, proc. ICCE 2006, San Diego, p. 4654-4666.


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.