Xi Zhao, Benlong Wang, Hua Liu


With certain profiles of bottom movements, orders of wave height of submarine earthquake-induced tsunami both in deep ocean and nearshore area have been studied using the Boussinesq equations. An earthquake of large magnitude generates a typical N-wave which can propagate long distance in open ocean without deformation. Since the magnitude and length of tsunami waves related to vertical and horizontal scale of geological movements, solitary wave and N-wave are extended to waves not tied to solitary property which represent tsunami waves better. In a horizontal one dimensional numerical wave flume, runup of solitary wave, N-wave, single crest and N-wave composed by a single crest and a single trough on a slope beach have been simulated. The results fit analytical solutions of nonlinear shallow water equations well. The Indian Ocean tsunami has been simulated with the horizontal two dimensional high order Boussinesq model. Comparison between numerical results and measured data from field survey validates the numerical model.


tsunami waves; N-wave; runup; Boussinesq equations


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