#### Abstract

ComFLOW is a 3D Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) model to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations including free surface, or to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flow problems (two-phase flow: both an incompressible viscous fluid (e.g., water) and a compressible viscous fluid (e.g., air) are present). The problem statement of the present study reads: ‘Is ComFLOW capable of accurate prediction of wave impacts on (impermeable) coastal structures such as dikes? And, if so, what are the preferred model settings and associated computing times?’. In this paper, ComFLOW is validated for this purpose by comparison against pressure data as measured in the Delta flume by pressure sensors at dikes. We have selected three different experiments, with typical dike geometries (slope 1:3.5, with and without berm) at which more than 20 pressure sensors were installed. The results can be summarized as follows. The pressure measurements are reproduced well in the simulations. A grid with about 170 grid cells per wave length in the horizontal, and between 4 and 6 grid cells per wave height in the vertical, proves to be sufficiently fine. At such a grid resolution and with about 450 by 35 grid cells in the computational domain, a typical CPU time is 35 minutes for simulations with a model time of 10 wave periods. For the present application, it is preferable to use the one-phase flow model rather than the two-phase flow model, since the former gives better results in the lower located pressure sensors and consumes less CPU time.

#### Keywords

numerical modeling; Volume of Fluid (VOF); ComFLOW; dike; wave impact

#### References

Kleefsman, K.M.T., G. Fekken, A.E.P. Veldman, B. Iwanoski and B. Buchner (2005). A Volume-of-Fluid based simulation method for wave impact problems. J. Comput. Phys., 206:363-393http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2004.12.007

Losada, I.J., J.L. Lara, R. Guanche and J.M. Gonzalez-Ondina (2008). Numerical Analysis of wave overtopping of rubble mound breakwaters, Coast. Eng. 55, 47-62http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2007.06.003

Wemmenhove, R. (2008). Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in offshore environments. PhD thesis, University of Groningen.

Wellens, P.R., R. Luppes, A.E.P. Veldman and M.J.A. Borsboom (2009). CFD simulations of a semisubmersible with absorbing boundary conditions. OMAE2009-79342. Proceedings of 28th OMAE conference, Honolulu, Hawai.

Wellens, P.R., M.J.A. Borsboom, M.R.A. Van Gent and I. Wenneker (2010). 3D simulation of wave interaction with permeable structures. Proceedings of 32th International Conference on Coastal

PMCid:2881346